Objectives.—To provide an update on insurance coverage, use of health care services, and health
expenditures for children and youth in the United States and new information on parents'
perceived quality of care for their children and to provide information on variation
in hospitalizations for children from a 24-state hospital discharge data source.
Methods.—The data on insurance coverage, utilization, expenditures, and perceived quality of
care come from the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey. The data on hospitalizations
come from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample, which is part of the Healthcare Cost and
Utilization Project. Both data sets are maintained by the Agency for Healthcare Research
Results.—In 2000, 64.5% of children were privately insured, 21.6% were insured through public
sources, and 13.9% were uninsured. Children aged 15–17 years were more likely to be
uninsured than children 1–4 years old. Children without health insurance coverage
were less likely to use health care services, and when they did, their rates of utilization
and expenditures were lower than insured children. Publicly insured children were
the most likely to use hospital inpatient and emergency department (ED) care. Being
black or Hispanic and living in families with incomes below 200% of the poverty line
were associated with lower utilization and expenditures. A small proportion of children
account for the bulk of health care expenditures: approximately 80% of all children's
health care expenditures are attributable to 20% of children who used medical services.
Although most parents report that their experiences with health care for their children
are good, there are significant variations by type of insurance coverage. There are
substantial differences in average length of hospitalization across the United States,
ranging from 2.9–4.1 days, and rates of hospital admission through the ED, which vary
across states from 10%–25%. Injuries are a major reason for hospitalization, accounting
for 1 in 6 hospital stays among 10- to 14-year-olds. In the 10- to 17-year age group,
more than 1 in 7 hospital stays are due to mental disorders. Among 15- to 17-year-olds,
more than one third of all hospital stays are related to childbirth and pregnancy.
The top 10 most common conditions treated in the hospital account for 40%–60% of all
Conclusion.—Children's use of health care services varies considerably by the type of health insurance
coverage, race/ethnicity, and family income. Quality of care, as measured by parents'
experiences of care, also varies by type of coverage. There is substantial variation
in use of hospital services across states.