Advertisement

Effectiveness of a Primary Care Intervention to Support Reading Aloud: A Multicenter Evaluation

  • Robert Needlman
    Correspondence
    Address correspondence to Robert Needlman, MD, Department of Pediatrics, MetroHealth Medical Center, 2500 MetroHealth Drive, Cleveland, OH 44109
    Affiliations
    Search for articles by this author
  • Karen H. Toker
    Affiliations
    From the Department of Pediatrics (Dr Needlman), Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio; the Department of Pediatrics (Dr Toker), University of Florida Health Sciences Center, Jacksonville, Fla; the Department of Pediatrics (Drs Dreyer and Mendelsohn), New York University School of Medicine, Bellevue Hospital Center, New York, NY; and the Department of Pediatrics (Dr Klass), Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, Mass
    Search for articles by this author
  • Benard P. Dreyer
    Affiliations
    From the Department of Pediatrics (Dr Needlman), Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio; the Department of Pediatrics (Dr Toker), University of Florida Health Sciences Center, Jacksonville, Fla; the Department of Pediatrics (Drs Dreyer and Mendelsohn), New York University School of Medicine, Bellevue Hospital Center, New York, NY; and the Department of Pediatrics (Dr Klass), Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, Mass
    Search for articles by this author
  • Perri Klass
    Affiliations
    From the Department of Pediatrics (Dr Needlman), Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio; the Department of Pediatrics (Dr Toker), University of Florida Health Sciences Center, Jacksonville, Fla; the Department of Pediatrics (Drs Dreyer and Mendelsohn), New York University School of Medicine, Bellevue Hospital Center, New York, NY; and the Department of Pediatrics (Dr Klass), Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, Mass
    Search for articles by this author
  • Alan L. Mendelsohn
    Affiliations
    From the Department of Pediatrics (Dr Needlman), Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio; the Department of Pediatrics (Dr Toker), University of Florida Health Sciences Center, Jacksonville, Fla; the Department of Pediatrics (Drs Dreyer and Mendelsohn), New York University School of Medicine, Bellevue Hospital Center, New York, NY; and the Department of Pediatrics (Dr Klass), Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, Mass
    Search for articles by this author
      Objective.—Failure to read at grade level predicts life-long economic and social disability. Early exposure to reading aloud may prevent reading problems. This study seeks to determine whether institution of Reach Out and Read (ROR) programs is associated with increased reading aloud in a national sample.
      Design.—Before-after intervention study: separate convenience samples were studied before and after institution of ROR programs at multiple sites.
      Participants and Setting.—A convenience sample of parents of children age 6–72 months seeking routine health care at 19 clinical sites in 10 states.
      Interventions.—The ROR model incorporates anticipatory guidance about reading aloud and distribution of free picture books at health supervision visits from 6 months through 5 years as well as reading aloud in the waiting room.
      Main Outcome Measures.—Parents were interviewed about their attitudes and practices related to reading aloud, using questions drawn from validated instruments.
      Results.—The sample included 1647 subjects (730 intervention, 917 comparison). After controlling for multiple potential confounding factors, significant associations were found between exposure to ROR and reading aloud as a favorite parenting activity (Adjusted Odds Ratio [AOR] 1.6, P < .001); reading aloud at bedtime (Adjusted Odds Ratio [AOR*rsqb; 1.5, P < .001); reading aloud 3 or more days per week (AOR 1.8, P < .001); and ownership of ≥10 picture books (AOR 1.6, P < .001).
      Conclusions.—In a national sample, implementation of ROR programs was associated with increased parental support for reading aloud. This study provides evidence of the effectiveness of a primary care intervention strategy to promote reading aloud to young children.

      KEY WORDS

      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'

      Subscribe:

      Subscribe to Academic Pediatrics
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect

      REFERENCES

      1. Learning to read and write: developmentally appropriate practices for young children. A joint position statement of the International Reading Association (IRA) and the National Association for the Education of Young Children (NAEYC).
        Young Children. 1998; 53: 30-46
        • Nord CW
        • Lennon J
        • Liu B
        • et al.
        Home Literacy Activities and Signs of Children's Emerging Literacy, 1993 and 1999. US Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Washington DC1999
        • Mendelsohn AL
        Promoting language and literacy through reading aloud: the role of the pediatrician.
        Curr Probl Pediatr Adolesc Health Care. 2002; 32: 188-202
        • Needlman R
        • Klass P
        • Zuckerman B
        Reach out and get your patients to read.
        Contemp Pediatr. 2002; 19: 51-69
      2. Reach Out and Read National Center.
        (Accessed June 2004)
        • Needlman R
        • Fried L
        • Morley D
        • et al.
        Clinic-based intervention to promote literacy.
        Am J Dis Child. 1991; 145: 881-884
        • High P
        • Hopman M
        • LaGasse L
        • Linn H
        Evaluation of a clinic-based program to promote book sharing and bedtime routines among low-income urban families with young children.
        Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 1998; 152: 459-465
        • Golova N
        • Alario A
        • Vivier P
        • et al.
        Literacy promotion for Hispanic families in a primary care setting: a randomized, controlled trial.
        Pediatrics. 1999; 103: 993-997
        • High P
        • LaGasse L
        • Becker S
        • et al.
        Literacy promotion in primary care pediatrics: can we make a difference?.
        Pediatrics (J Ambul Pediatr Assoc). 2000; 104: 927-934
        • Sanders LM
        • Gershon TD
        • Huffman LC
        • Mendoza FS
        Prescribing books for immigrant children.
        Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2000; 154: 771-777
        • Jones VF
        • Franco SM
        • Metcalf SC
        • et al.
        The value of book distribution in a clinic-based literacy intervention program.
        Clin Pediatr (Phila). 2000; 39: 535-541
        • Mendelsohn A
        • Mogliner L
        • Dreyer B
        • et al.
        The impact of a clinic-based literacy intervention on language development in inner-city preschool children.
        Pediatrics. 2001; 107: 130-134
        • Sharif I
        • Reiber S
        • Ozuah PO
        Exposure to Reach Out and Read and vocabulary outcomes in inner city preschoolers.
        J Natl Med Assoc. 2002; 94: 171-177
        • Silverstein M
        • Iverson L
        • Lozano P
        An English-language clinic-based literacy program is effective for a multilingual population.
        Pediatrics. 2002; 109: e76
        • Fortman KK
        • Fisch RO
        • Phinney MY
        • Defor TA
        Books and babies: clinical-based literacy programs.
        J Pediatr Health Care. 2003; 17: 295-300
        • Theriot JA
        • Franco SM
        • Sisson BA
        • Metcalf SC
        • Kennedy MA
        • Bada HS
        The impact of early literacy guidance on language skills of 3-year-olds.
        Clin Pediatr (Phila). 2003; 42: 165-172
        • Weitzman CC
        • Roy L
        • Walls T
        • Tomlin R
        More evidence for Reach Out and Read: a home-based study.
        Pediatrics. 2004; 113: 1248-1253
        • Needlman R
        • Silverstein M
        Pediatric interventions to support reading aloud: how good is the evidence?.
        J Dev Behav Pediatr. 2004; 25: 352-363
        • Dreyer BP
        • Mendelsohn AL
        • Tamis-LeMonda CS
        Assess the child's cognitive home environment through parental report: reliability and validity.
        Early Dev Parent. 1997; 5: 271-287
        • Sudman S
        • Bradburn NM
        Asking Questions. Jossey-Bass Series in Social and Behavioral Sciences. 1st ed. Jossey-Bass, San Francisco, Calif1982: 397
        • Heath SB
        Ways With Words: Language Life and Work in Communities and Classrooms. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, Mass1983
        • National Research Council.
        Preventing Reading Difficulties in Young Children. National Academy Press, Washington, DC1998
        • Adams MJ
        Beginning to Read: Thinking and Learning About Print. MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass1990
        • Whitehurst G
        • Zevenbergen A
        • Crone D
        • et al.
        Outcomes of an emergent literacy intervention from head start through second grade.
        J Educ Psychol. 1999; 91: 261-272
        • Wade B
        • Moore M
        An early start with books: literacy and mathematical evidence from a longitudinal study.
        Educ Rev. 1998; 50: 135-145