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Improving Medical Student Feedback With a Clinical Encounter Card

  • Philip O. Ozuah
    Correspondence
    Address correspondence to Philip O. Ozuah, MD, PhD, Department of Pediatrics, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Children's Hospital at Montefiore, 3415 Bainbridge Ave, Bronx, New York 10467.
    Affiliations
    From the Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Children's Hospital at Montefiore, Bronx, NY (Dr Ozuah and Dr Reznik); and the Office of Faculty Affairs, George Washington University School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Washington, DC (Dr Greenberg)
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  • Marina Reznik
    Affiliations
    From the Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Children's Hospital at Montefiore, Bronx, NY (Dr Ozuah and Dr Reznik); and the Office of Faculty Affairs, George Washington University School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Washington, DC (Dr Greenberg)
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  • Larrie Greenberg
    Affiliations
    From the Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Children's Hospital at Montefiore, Bronx, NY (Dr Ozuah and Dr Reznik); and the Office of Faculty Affairs, George Washington University School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Washington, DC (Dr Greenberg)
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      Objective

      We previously developed a Clinical Encounter Card (CEC) for use in medical student feedback. However, no prior studies have investigated the effectiveness of the CEC. The objective of our study was to determine whether use of the CEC would increase medical students' perception of the feedback they received.

      Methods

      We conducted a time-series repeated-measures experimental study at a pediatric clerkship site. The study included a crossover design with experimental and control arms. Third-year medical students on the ambulatory rotations were the experimental arm, and inpatient students were the control arm. Students and faculty in the experimental arm received the CEC, which listed 7 feedback domains: history and interviewing, physical examination, oral presentation, written notes, patient assessment, management plan, and professionalism. We used a 10-point Likert-type scale to record responses of students weekly regarding their perceptions of having received feedback in the 7 domains. Multivariate analysis of variance for repeat measures tested mean differences in continuous variables, and Mann-Whitney U rank order sum tested ordinal rank differences.

      Results

      We received 504 reports from students regarding the feedback they received. We found statistically significant improvements in 6 feedback domains for experimental subjects: history/interviewing, physical examination, oral presentation, written notes, patient assessment, and management plan. There was no improvement in feedback received about professionalism.

      Conclusions

      Use of the CEC resulted in students' perceiving increased feedback as evidenced by significant improvements in several medical student feedback domains.

      Key Words

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