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Associations of Early Life Risk Factors With Infant Sleep Duration

  • Michael D. Nevarez
    Affiliations
    From the Obesity Prevention Program, Department of Population Medicine, Harvard Pilgrim Health Care and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Mass (Mr Nevarez, Ms Rifas-Shiman, Dr Kleinman, Dr Gillman, and Dr Taveras); Department of Nutrition, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Mass (Dr Gillman); and Division of General Pediatrics, Children's Hospital Boston, Boston, Mass (Dr Taveras)
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  • Sheryl L. Rifas-Shiman
    Affiliations
    From the Obesity Prevention Program, Department of Population Medicine, Harvard Pilgrim Health Care and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Mass (Mr Nevarez, Ms Rifas-Shiman, Dr Kleinman, Dr Gillman, and Dr Taveras); Department of Nutrition, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Mass (Dr Gillman); and Division of General Pediatrics, Children's Hospital Boston, Boston, Mass (Dr Taveras)
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  • Ken P. Kleinman
    Affiliations
    From the Obesity Prevention Program, Department of Population Medicine, Harvard Pilgrim Health Care and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Mass (Mr Nevarez, Ms Rifas-Shiman, Dr Kleinman, Dr Gillman, and Dr Taveras); Department of Nutrition, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Mass (Dr Gillman); and Division of General Pediatrics, Children's Hospital Boston, Boston, Mass (Dr Taveras)
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  • Matthew W. Gillman
    Affiliations
    From the Obesity Prevention Program, Department of Population Medicine, Harvard Pilgrim Health Care and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Mass (Mr Nevarez, Ms Rifas-Shiman, Dr Kleinman, Dr Gillman, and Dr Taveras); Department of Nutrition, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Mass (Dr Gillman); and Division of General Pediatrics, Children's Hospital Boston, Boston, Mass (Dr Taveras)
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  • Elsie M. Taveras
    Correspondence
    Address correspondence to Elsie M. Taveras, MD, MPH, Department of Population Medicine, Harvard Pilgrim Health Care and Harvard Medical School, 133 Brookline Avenue, 6th Floor, Boston, Massachusetts 02215.
    Affiliations
    From the Obesity Prevention Program, Department of Population Medicine, Harvard Pilgrim Health Care and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Mass (Mr Nevarez, Ms Rifas-Shiman, Dr Kleinman, Dr Gillman, and Dr Taveras); Department of Nutrition, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Mass (Dr Gillman); and Division of General Pediatrics, Children's Hospital Boston, Boston, Mass (Dr Taveras)
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Published:March 29, 2010DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.acap.2010.01.007

      Objective

      Insufficient sleep in children is associated with adverse health effects. We examined the associations of early life risk factors with infant sleep duration.

      Methods

      We studied 1676 mother-infant pairs in a prebirth cohort study. Main outcomes were mothers' report of their infants' average 24-hour sleep duration at ages 6 months, 1 year, and 2 years.

      Results

      Infants slept mean standard deviation [SD] durations of 12.2 (2.0) hours/day at age 6 months, 12.8 (1.6) hours/day at age 1 year, and 11.9 (1.3) hours/day at age 2 years. In multivariable regression models, maternal antenatal depression, introduction of solids at age <4 months, and infant TV/video viewing were associated with shorter sleep durations at both 1 and 2 years of age. Estimates were 0.36 fewer hours/day of sleep for maternal antenatal depression, 0.39 fewer hours/day of sleep if infant was introduced to solids at age <4 months, and 0.11 fewer hours/day of sleep for each 1 hour of TV viewed per week. Attendance at child care outside the home was associated with 0.18 fewer hours/day of sleep at age 2 years. At age 2 years, black, Hispanic, and Asian infants slept 0.40, 0.82, and 0.95, respectively, fewer hours per day than white infants.

      Conclusions

      Maternal depression during pregnancy, early introduction of solid foods, infant TV viewing, and attendance of child care were associated with shorter infant sleep duration. Racial/ethnic minority children slept fewer hours in the first 2 years of life than white children. Our results suggest that various risk factors, some potentially modifiable, are worthy of clinical consideration when addressing infant sleep duration.

      Key Words

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