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Competency 1. Gather essential and accurate information about the patient

      In the early stages of clinical reasoning, learners must rely upon their knowledge of basic pathophysiology and principles learned in their preclinical training when they gather information about patients. This knowledge allows them to use analytic reasoning to generate mental maps, which are representations of how things are related and linked to one another. In this situation, mental maps represent the way in which components of a patient's history and physical examination are linked to one another as well as to the possible diagnoses.
      • Schmidt H.G.
      • Norman G.R.
      • Boshuizen H.P.A.
      A cognitive perspective on medical expertise: theory and implications.
      • Carraccio C.L.
      • Benson B.J.
      • Nixon L.J.
      • Derstine P.L.
      From the educational bench to the clinical bedside: translating the Dreyfus Developmental Model to the learning of clinical skills.
      • Eva K.
      What every teacher needs to know about clinical reasoning.
      • Schmidt H.G.
      • Boshuizen H.P.A.
      On acquiring expertise in medicine.
      • Schmidt H.G.
      • Rikers R.M.J.P.
      How expertise develops in medicine: knowledge encapsulation and illness script formation.
      With limited clinical experience, these mental maps can be both overly extensive and inappropriately convoluted, including information of no or limited clinical relevance to the patient's current presentation. At the same time, the lack of clinical experience may result in neglecting important features of the history and examination. The end result is often limited connections between the pieces of information gathered.
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