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Competency 2. Set learning and improvement goals

      Malcolm Knowles
      • Knowles M.S.
      Self-Directed Learning: A Guide for Learners and Teachers.
      first established the following definition of self-directed learning (SDL) that guided work in this area: a process in “which individuals take the initiative (with or without the help of others) in diagnosing their learning needs, formulating goals, identifying human and material resources for learning, choosing and implementing appropriate learning strategies, and evaluating learning outcomes.” As our understanding of SDL has grown, more recent definitions, such as that of Hammond and Collins,
      • Hammond M.
      • Collins R.
      Self-Directed Learning:Critical Practice.
      reflect the complexity of the phenomenon:A process in which learners take the initiative, with the support and collaboration of others, for increasing self and social awareness; critically analyzing and reflecting on their situations, diagnosing their learning needs with specific reference to competencies they have helped identify; formulating socially and personally relevant learning goals, identifying human and material resources for learning, choosing and implementing appropriate learning strategies; and reflecting on and evaluating their learning.
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      References

        • Knowles M.S.
        Self-Directed Learning: A Guide for Learners and Teachers.
        Associated Press, New York, NY1975
        • Hammond M.
        • Collins R.
        Self-Directed Learning:Critical Practice.
        Nichols/GP Publishing, New York, NY1991
        • Campion-Smith C.
        Interprofessional Learning in Primary Care: The Dorset Seedcorn Project.
        World Conference of Family Doctors, Dublin, UK1998
        • Vygotsky L.S.
        Mind in Society: The Development of Higher Psychological Processes.
        Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Mass1978
        • Norman G.R.
        The adult learner: a mythical species.
        Acad Med. 1999; 74: 886-889