Advertisement

The Relative Roles of Types of Extracurricular Activity on Smoking and Drinking Initiation Among Tweens

  • Anna M. Adachi-Mejia
    Correspondence
    Address correspondence to Anna M. Adachi-Mejia, PhD, HB 7925, Cancer Control Research Program, Dartmouth-Hitchcock Norris Cotton Cancer Center, Lebanon, NH 03756.
    Affiliations
    Department of Pediatrics, Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth, Lebanon, NH

    Cancer Control Research Program, Norris Cotton Cancer Center, Lebanon, NH

    Dartmouth Institute for Health Policy and Clinical Practice, Lebanon, NH
    Search for articles by this author
  • Jennifer J. Gibson Chambers
    Affiliations
    University of New England College of Osteopathic Medicine Medical School, Biddeford, Me
    Search for articles by this author
  • Zhigang Li
    Affiliations
    Section of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, Department of Community and Family Medicine, Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth, Lebanon, NH

    Cancer Epidemiology and Chemoprevention Research Program, Norris Cotton Cancer Center, Lebanon, NH
    Search for articles by this author
  • James D. Sargent
    Affiliations
    Department of Pediatrics, Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth, Lebanon, NH

    Cancer Control Research Program, Norris Cotton Cancer Center, Lebanon, NH
    Search for articles by this author

      Abstract

      Objective

      Youth involvement in extracurricular activities may help prevent smoking and drinking initiation. However, the relative roles of types of extracurricular activity on these risks are unclear. Therefore, we examined the association between substance use and participation in team sports with a coach, other sports without a coach, music, school clubs, and other clubs in a nationally representative sample of US tweens.

      Methods

      We conducted telephone surveys with 6522 US students (ages 10 to 14 years) in 2003. We asked participants if they had ever tried smoking or drinking, and we asked them about their participation in extracurricular activities. We used sample weighting to produce response estimates that were representative of the population of adolescents aged 10 to 14 years at the time of data collection. Logistic regression models that adjusted for appropriate sampling weights using jackknife variance estimation tested associations with trying smoking and drinking, controlling for sociodemographics, child and parent characteristics, friend/sibling/parent substance use, and media use.

      Results

      A little over half of the students reported participating in team sports with a coach (55.5%) and without a coach (55.4%) a few times per week or more. Most had minimal to no participation in school clubs (74.2%); however, most reported being involved in other clubs (85.8%). A little less than half participated in music, choir, dance, and/or band lessons. Over half of participants involved in religious activity did those activities a few times per week or more. In the multiple regression analysis, team sport participation with a coach was the only extracurricular activity associated with lower risk of trying smoking (adjusted odds ratio 0.68, 95% confidence interval 0.49, 0.96) compared to none or minimal participation. Participating in other clubs was the only extracurricular activity associated with lower risk of trying drinking (adjusted odds ratio 0.56, 95% confidence interval 0.32, 0.99) compared to none or minimal participation.

      Conclusions

      Type of extracurricular involvement may be associated with risk of youth smoking and drinking initiation. Future research should seek to better understand the underlying reasons behind these differences.

      Keywords

      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'

      Subscribe:

      Subscribe to Academic Pediatrics
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect

      References

      1. American Academy of Pediatrics; HealthyChildren.org. Child care for older kids. 2013. Available at: http://www.healthychildren.org/English/family-life/work-play/pages/Childcare-for-Older-Kids.aspx. Accessed 3/5/14.

        • Allard M.
        • Janes M.
        Time use of working parents: a visual essay.
        Monthly Labor Review. 2008; 131
        • Lam C.B.
        • McHale S.M.
        • Crouter A.C.
        Parent–child shared time from middle childhood to late adolescence: developmental course and adjustment correlates.
        Child Dev. 2012; 83: 2089-2103
      2. American Red Cross. Babysitting training. Available at: http://www.redcross.org/take-a-class/program-highlights/babysitting-caregiving. Accessed March 5, 2014.

      3. Boys and Girls Clubs. Quality programs. 2013. Available at: http://www.rotary.positiveplace.org/programs.html. Accessed March 5, 2014.

        • Eccles J.S.
        • Templeton J.
        Extracurricular and other after-school activities for youth.
        Rev Res Educ. 2002; 26: 113-180
        • Fry G.
        • Grogan S.
        • Gough B.
        • Conner M.
        Smoking in the lived world: how young people make sense of the social role cigarettes play in their lives.
        Br J Social Psychol. 2008; 47: 763-780
        • Werner E.E.
        Overcoming the odds.
        J Dev Behav Pediatr. 1994; 15: 131-136
        • Groth J.J.
        • Ayers S.F.
        • Miller M.G.
        • Arbogast W.D.
        Self-reported health and fitness habits of certified athletic trainers.
        J Athl Train. 2008; 43: 617-623
        • Barber B.L.
        • Eccles J.S.
        • Stone M.R.
        Whatever happened to the jock, the brain, and the princess? Young adult pathways linked to adolescent activity involvement and social identity.
        J Adolesc Res. 2001; 16: 429-455
        • Fredricks J.A.
        • Eccles J.S.
        Is extracurricular participation associated with beneficial outcomes? Concurrent and longitudinal relations.
        Dev Psychol. 2006; 42: 698-713
        • Harrison P.A.
        • Narayan G.
        Differences in behavior, psychological factors, and environmental factors associated with participation in school sports and other activities in adolescence.
        J Sch Health. 2003; 73: 113-120
        • Jenkins J.E.
        The influence of peer affiliation and student activities on adolescent drug involvement.
        Adolescence. 1996; 31: 297-306
        • Rodriguez D.
        • Audrain-McGovern J.
        Team sport participation and smoking: analysis with general growth mixture modeling.
        J Pediatr Psychol. 2004; 29: 299-308
        • Pate R.R.
        • Trost S.G.
        • Levin S.
        • Dowda M.
        Sports participation and health-related behaviors among US youth.
        Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2000; 154: 904-911
        • Sargent J.D.
        • Beach M.L.
        • Adachi-Mejia A.M.
        • et al.
        Exposure to movie smoking: its relation to smoking initiation among US adolescents.
        Pediatrics. 2005; 116: 1183-1191
      4. US Census Bureau. About metropolitan and micropolitan statistical areas. 2013. Available at: http://www.census.gov/population/metro/about/. Accessed 3/5/14.

        • Carvajal S.C.
        • Wiatrek D.E.
        • Evans R.I.
        • et al.
        Psychosocial determinants of the onset and escalation of smoking: cross-sectional and prospective findings in multiethnic middle school samples.
        J Adolesc Health. 2000; 27: 255-265
        • Sargent J.D.
        • Beach M.L.
        • Dalton M.A.
        • et al.
        Effect of parental R-rated movie restriction on adolescent smoking initiation: a prospective study.
        Pediatrics. 2004; 114: 149-156
        • Russo M.F.
        • Stokes G.S.
        • Lahey B.B.
        • et al.
        A sensation seeking scale for children: further refinement and psychometric development.
        J Psychopathology Behav Assess. 1993; 15: 69-85
        • Zuckerman M.
        • Bone R.N.
        • Neary R.
        • et al.
        What is the sensation seeker? Personality trait and experience correlates of the Sensation-Seeking Scales.
        J Consult Clin Psychol. 1972; 39: 308-321
      5. SAS [computer program]. Version 9.2. SAS Institute Inc, Cary, NC2010
        • Adachi-Mejia A.M.
        • Primack B.A.
        • Beach M.L.
        • et al.
        Influence of movie smoking exposure and team sports participation on established smoking.
        Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2009; 163: 638-643
        • Aaron D.J.
        • Dearwater S.R.
        • Anderson R.
        • et al.
        Physical activity and the initiation of high-risk health behaviors in adolescents.
        Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1995; 27: 1639-1645
        • Rooney J.F.
        Sports and clean living: a useful myth?.
        Drug Alcohol Depend. 1984; 13: 75-87
        • Challier B.
        • Chau N.
        • Predine R.
        • et al.
        Associations of family environment and individual factors with tobacco, alcohol, and illicit drug use in adolescents.
        Eur J Epidemiol. 2000; 16: 33-42
        • Garry J.P.
        • Morrissey S.L.
        Team sports participation and risk-taking behaviors among a biracial middle school population.
        Clin J Sport Med. 2000; 10: 185-190
        • Nonnemaker J.M.
        • McNeely C.A.
        • Blum R.W.
        Public and private domains of religiosity and adolescent health risk behaviors: evidence from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health.
        Soc Sci Med. 2003; 57: 2049-2054
        • Farb A.F.
        • Matjasko J.L.
        Recent advances in research on school-based extracurricular activities and adolescent development.
        Dev Rev. 2012; 32: 1-48
        • Knifsend C.A.
        • Graham S.
        Too much of a good thing? how breadth of extracurricular participation relates to school-related affect and academic outcomes during adolescence.
        J Youth Adolesc. 2012; 41: 379-389
        • Mahoney J.L.
        • Vest A.E.
        The over-scheduling hypothesis revisited: intensity of organized activity participation during adolescence and young adult outcomes.
        J Res Adolesc. 2012; 22: 409-418
        • Eccles J.S.
        • Barber B.L.
        Student council, volunteering, basketball, or marching band: what kind of extracurricular involvement matters?.
        J Adolesc Res. 1999; 14: 10-43
        • Atkins L.A.
        • Oman R.F.
        • Vesely S.K.
        • et al.
        Adolescent tobacco use: the protective effects of developmental assets.
        Am J Health Behav. 2002; 16: 198-205
        • Guo H.
        • Reeder A.I.
        • McGee R.
        • Darling H.
        Adolescents’ leisure activities, parental monitoring and cigarette smoking—a cross-sectional study.
        Subst Abuse Treat Prev Policy. 2011; 6: 12
      6. Lebanon School District Supervisory Unit #88. Lebanon Middle School agenda handbook. Available at: http://www.sau88.net/policies-forms/school-handbooks. Accessed March 5, 2014.