Advertisement

Novel Immunization Reminder/Recall Approaches: Rural and Urban Differences in Parent Perceptions

      Abstract

      Objective

      To assess the following among parents of young children: 1) preferences about the source of immunization reminder/recall (R/R) messages, 2) the degree of acceptability of different R/R modalities, and 3) factors that influence preferences, including rural and urban characteristics.

      Methods

      We conducted a survey among parents of children 19 to 35 months old who needed ≥1 immunization according to the Colorado Immunization Information System (CIIS). Equal numbers of urban and rural respondents were randomly selected. Up to 4 surveys were mailed to each parent who had a valid address.

      Results

      After removing invalid addresses, the response rate was 55% (334 of 607). Half of parents (49.7%) had no preference about whether the public health department or their child's doctor sent reminders. Urban parents were more likely to prefer R/R come from their child's doctor (46.7%) compared to rural parents (33.7%), P = .003. Mail was the preferred R/R method (57.7%), then telephone (17.0%), e-mail (12.7%), and text message (10.7%). Although not preferred, 60.1% reported it would be acceptable to receive R/R by e-mail and 46.2% by text message. Factors associated with preferring to receive R/R from their child's doctor were urban residence and educational level of college graduate or greater.

      Conclusions

      A large portion of parents are willing to be reminded about vaccinations by their health department rather than their child's provider and via novel modalities, such as e-mail or text messaging. Urbanicity and higher educational level were associated with preferring that R/R come from a provider.

      Keywords

      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'

      Subscribe:

      Subscribe to Academic Pediatrics
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect

      References

        • Jacobson Vann J.C.
        • Szilagyi P.
        Patient reminder and patient recall systems to improve immunization rates.
        Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2009; : CD003941
        • Lieu T.A.
        • Capra A.M.
        • Makol J.
        • et al.
        Effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of letters, automated telephone messages, or both for underimmunized children in a health maintenance organization.
        Pediatrics. 1998; 101: E3
        • Suh C.A.
        • Saville A.
        • Daley M.F.
        • et al.
        Effectiveness and net cost of reminder/recall for adolescent immunizations.
        Pediatrics. 2012; 129: e1437-e1445
        • Kempe A.
        • Barrow J.
        • Stokley S.
        • et al.
        Effectiveness and cost of immunization recall at school-based health centers.
        Pediatrics. 2012; 129: e1446-e1452
        • Saville A.W.
        • Albright K.
        • Nowels C.
        • et al.
        Getting under the hood: exploring issues that affect provider-based recall using an immunization information system.
        Acad Pediatr. 2011; 11: 44-49
        • Tierney C.D.
        • Yusuf H.
        • McMahon S.R.
        • et al.
        Adoption of reminder and recall messages for immunizations by pediatricians and public health clinics.
        Pediatrics. 2003; 112: 1076-1082
        • Szilagyi P.G.
        • Schaffer S.
        • Barth R.
        • et al.
        Effect of telephone reminder/recall on adolescent immunization and preventive visits: results from a randomized clinical trial.
        Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2006; 160: 157-163
        • Pereira J.A.
        • Quach S.
        • Heidebrecht C.L.
        • et al.
        Barriers to the use of reminder/recall interventions for immunizations: a systematic review.
        BMC Med Inform Decis Mak. 2012; 12: 145
        • Kempe A.
        • Saville A.
        • Dickinson L.M.
        • et al.
        Population-based versus practice-based recall for childhood immunizations: A randomized controlled comparative effectiveness trial.
        Am J Public Health. 2013; 103: 1116-1123
        • Stockwell M.S.
        • Kharbanda E.O.
        • Martinez R.A.
        • et al.
        Effect of a text messaging intervention on influenza vaccination in an urban, low-income pediatric and adolescent population: a randomized controlled trial.
        JAMA. 2012; 307: 1702-1708
        • Hofstetter A.M.
        • Vargas C.Y.
        • Kennedy A.
        • et al.
        Parental and provider preferences and concerns regarding text message reminder/recall for early childhood vaccinations.
        Prev Med. 2013; 57: 75-80
        • Clark S.J.
        • Butchart A.
        • Kennedy A.
        • Dombkowski K.J.
        Parents' experiences with and preferences for immunization reminder/recall technologies.
        Pediatrics. 2011; 128: e1100-e1105
        • Kharbanda E.O.
        • Stockwell M.S.
        • Fox H.W.
        • Rickert V.I.
        Text4Health: a qualitative evaluation of parental readiness for text message immunization reminders.
        Am J Public Health. 2009; 99: 2176-2178
        • Ahlers-Schmidt C.R.
        • Chesser A.K.
        • Paschal A.M.
        • et al.
        Parent opinions about use of text messaging for immunization reminders.
        J Med Internet Res. 2012; 14: e83
        • Car J.
        • Gurol-Urganci I.
        • de Jongh T.
        • et al.
        Mobile phone messaging reminders for attendance at healthcare appointments.
        Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2012; : CD007458
        • Leong K.C.
        • Chen W.S.
        • Leong K.W.
        • et al.
        The use of text messaging to improve attendance in primary care: a randomized controlled trial.
        Fam Pract. 2006; 23: 699-705
        • Akinsanya-Beysolow I.
        • Jenkins R.
        • Meissner H.C.
        Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommended immunization schedule for persons aged 0 through 18 years—United States, 2013.
        MMWR Surveill Summ. 2013; 62: 2-8
      1. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Immunization Information System (IIS) functional standards, 2013–2017. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/programs/iis/func-stds.pdf. Accessed January 31, 2014.

      2. Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment CIIS. Colorado annual immunization progress report for CY2011, section IX—immunization information systems. 2011.

        • Dillman D.A.
        • Smyth J.
        • Christian L.M.
        Internet, Mail and Mixed-Mode Surveys: The Tailored Desgin Method.
        3rd ed. Wiley, New York, NY2009
      3. American Association for Public Opinion Research. Standard definitions: final dispositions of case codes and outcome rates for surveys. 4th ed. 2008. Available at: http://www.aapor.org/uploads/Standard_Definitions_07_08_Final.pdf. Accessed October 28, 2013.

        • Szilagyi P.G.
        • Albertin C.
        • Humiston S.G.
        • et al.
        A randomized trial of the effect of centralized reminder/recall on immunizations and preventive care visits for adolescents.
        Acad Pediatr. 2013; 13: 204-213
        • Institute of Medicine
        Primary Care and Public Health: Exploring Integration to Improve Population Health.
        National Academies Press, Washington, DC2012
      4. Cisco. Cisco visual networking index: forecast and methodology, 2011–2016. Available at: http://www.cisco.com/en/US/solutions/collateral/ns341/ns525/ns537/ns705/ns827/white_paper_c11-481360_ns827_Networking_Solutions_White_Paper.html. Accessed May 30, 2013.

      5. eTForecasts. Internet user forecast by country. 2011. Available at: http://www.etforecasts.com/products/ES_intusersv2.htm. Accessed March 28, 2013.

      6. International Data Corporation. Android expected to reach its peak this year as mobile phone shipments slow, according to IDC. June 6, 2012. Available at: http://www.idc.com/getdoc.jsp?containerId=prUS23523812. Accessed March 28, 2013.

      7. Euromonitor International. Mobile phones in the US. Available at: http://www.euromonitor.com/mobile-phones-in-the-us/report#. Accessed March 28, 2013.

      8. US Department of Commerce. Digital nation: expanding Internet usage. Available at: http://www.ntia.doc.gov/files/ntia/publications/ntia_internet_use_report_february_2011.pdf. Accessed March 28, 2013.

      9. US Department of Commerce. Exploring the digital nation: home broadband internet adoption in the United States. Available at: http://www.ntia.doc.gov/files/ntia/publications/esa_ntia_us_broadband_adoption_report_11082010_1.pdf. Accessed March 28, 2013.

        • Kempe A.
        • Steiner J.F.
        • Renfrew B.L.
        • et al.
        How much does a regional immunization registry increase documented immunization rates at primary care sites in rural Colorado?.
        Ambul Pediatr. 2001; 1: 213-216
        • Renfrew B.L.
        • Kempe A.
        • Lowery N.E.
        • et al.
        The impact of immunization record aggregation on up-to-date rates—implications for immunization registries in rural areas.
        J Rural Health. 2001; 17: 122-126
        • Glazner J.E.
        • Steiner J.F.
        • Haas K.J.
        • et al.
        Is reimbursement for childhood immunizations adequate? Evidence from two rural areas in Colorado.
        Public Health Rep. 2001; 116: 219-225
        • Glazner J.E.
        • Beaty B.L.
        • Pearson K.A.
        • Berman S.
        The cost of giving childhood vaccinations: differences among provider types.
        Pediatrics. 2004; 113: 1582-1587
        • Glazner J.E.
        • Beaty B.
        • Berman S.
        Cost of vaccine administration among pediatric practices.
        Pediatrics. 2009; 124: S492-S498
        • Freed G.L.
        • Cowan A.E.
        • Gregory S.
        • Clark S.J.
        Variation in provider vaccine purchase prices and payer reimbursement.
        Pediatrics. 2008; 122: 1325-1331
        • Freed G.L.
        • Cowan A.E.
        • Clark S.J.
        Primary care physician perspectives on reimbursement for childhood immunizations.
        Pediatrics. 2008; 122: 1319-1324
        • Fincham J.E.
        Response rates and responsiveness for surveys, standards, and the Journal.
        Am J Pharm Educ. 2008; 72: 43
        • Johnson K.
        Demographic Trends in Rural and Small Town America.
        Carsey Institute, University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH2006 (Available at:) (Accessed November 11, 2013)
      10. US Census Bureau. American community survey, 5 year estimates. Available at: http://factfinder2.census.gov. Accessed November 11, 2013.

      11. US Census Bureau. State and county quick facts: Colorado. Available at: http://quickfacts.census.gov/qfd/states/08000.html. Accessed October 17, 2013.

      12. US Census Bureau. US Bureau of Labor Statistics. The annual social and economic supplement to the current population survey, 2012. Available at: http://www.census.gov/hhes/www/cpstables/032013/health/toc.htm. Accessed November 11, 2013.

      13. US Census Bureau. 2012 American community survey 1 year estimates. Available at: http://factfinder2.census.gov/faces/tableservices/jsf/pages/productview.xhtml?pid=ACS_12_1YR_S0201&prodType=table. Accessed November 11, 2013.