Editorial Board

        Editor-in Chief

        Peter G. Szilagyi, MD, MPH, Rochester, NY

        Senior Editors

        Maryellen Gusic, MD, Indianapolis, IN
        Karen Kuhlthau, PhD, Boston, MA
        Marie C. McCormick, MD, ScD, Boston, MA

        Associate Editors

        Katherine A. Poehling, MD, MPH, Winston-Salem, NC

        Editors for in the Moment

        Associate Editor: Anjali Jain, MD, Falls Church, VA
        Assistant Editor: Bryan Siok, MD, St. Louis, MO

        Associate Editors for Perspectives

        Paul J. Chung, MD, MS, Los Angeles, CA
        Paul C. Young, MD, Salt Lake City, UT

        Associate Editor for Systematic Reviews

        Robert M. Jacobson, MD, Rochester, MN

        Associate Editor for Association of Pediatric Program Directors

        Daniel West, MD, San Francisco, CA

        Online Editor

        Dipesh Navsaria, MPH, MSLIS, MD, Madison, WI

        Managing Editor

        Sheila Bloom, MS, Boston, MA

        Editorial Board

        Connie Baldwin, PhD
        Rochester, NY
        Dorene Balmer, PhD
        Houston, TX
        Christina Bethell, PhD, MBA, MPH
        Portland, OR
        David C. Brousseau, MD, MS
        Milwaukee, WI
        Esther K. Chung, MD, MPH
        Philadelphia, PA
        Eve R. Colson, MD
        New Haven, CT
        Kevin Dombkowski, DrPH
        Ann Arbor, MI
        Jonathan Finkelstein, MD, MPH
        Boston, MA
        James Guevara, MD, MPH
        Philadelphia, PA
        Simon Hambidge, MD, PhD
        Denver, CO
        Janice L. Hanson, PhD, EdS
        Aurora, CO
        Harriet Hiscock, MB BS, MD
        Melbourne, Australia
        Allison Kempe, MD, MPH
        Denver, CO
        Lawrence C. Kleinman, MD, MPH
        New York, NY
        Dennis Z. Kuo, MD, MHS
        Little Rock, AR
        Stephen T. Lawless, MD, MBA
        Wilmington, DE
        David McCormick, MD
        Galveston, TX
        Alan L. Mendelsohn, MD
        New York, NY
        Eliana M. Perrin, MD, MPH
        Chapel Hill, NC
        Michael J. Potts, MD
        Rockford, IL
        Andrew D. Racine, MD, PhD
        Bronx, NY
        Daniel Rauch, MD
        New York, NY
        R. Christopher Sheldrick, PhD
        Boston, MA
        Laura P. Shone, DrPH, MSW
        Rochester, NY
        Ellen Johnson Silver, PhD
        Bronx, NY
        Christopher B. White, MD
        Augusta, GA

        Ex Officio

        Marc Schuster, MD, PhD
        Ivor Horn, MD, MPH
        Chair, Journal Committee
        Barry Solomon, MD, MPH
        Communications Director
        Connie Mackay
        Executive Director

        Founding Editor-in-Chief

        James M. Perrin, MD
        Academic Pediatrics (ISSN 1530-1567), an official publication of the Academic Pediatric Association is published Bi-monthly by Elsevier, 360 Park Avenue South, New York, NY 10010. Months of issue are January/February, March/April, May/June, July/August, September/October, and November/December. Business office: 1600 John F. Kennedy Blvd., Ste. 1800., Philadelphia, PA 19103-2899. Editorial Office: 360 Park Avenue South, New York, NY 10010-1710. Periodicals postage paid at New York, NY and additional mailing offices.


        Send change of address to Academic Pediatrics, Elsevier, Periodicals Department, 3251 Riverport Lane, Maryland Heights, MO 63043.
        Owned by the Academic Pediatric Association 6728 Old McLean Village Drive McLean, VA 22101 Telephone: (703) 556-9222 Fax: (703) 556-8729 EDITOR Peter G. Szilagyi, MD, MPH University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry Department of Pediatrics Strong Memorial Hospital 601 Elmwood Avenue Box 777 Rochester, NY 14642 Phone: (585) 275-5798 Fax: (585) 276-2595 e-mail: [email protected] . PUBLISHER Elsevier Inc. 360 Park Avenue South New York, NY 10010 Telephone: (212) 989-5800 Fax: (212) 633-3913 e-mail: [email protected] . Academic Pediatrics’ purpose is to help further define the field of academic general pediatrics and strengthen the research and educational base of pediatrics. It does not assume any responsibility for the written content of articles. Academic Pediatrics is abstracted and/or indexed in CAB ABSTRACTS, CAB HEALTH, Cambridge Scientific Abstracts, CINAHL, Health Index, Health Reference Center, Index Medicus, and Science Citation Index Expanded. The Academic Pediatric Association, founded in 1960 as the Ambulatory Pediatric Association, aims to improve the teaching of general pediatrics, to inform services in general pediatrics and to inform public and government opinion regarding issues vital to teaching, research and patient care in general pediatrics.


        Colleague membership in APA is $250 (Physicians), $125 (Non-Physicians), or $50 (in training) per year and includes a subscription to Academic Pediatrics and full participation in all APA activities. To join, contact Academic Pediatric Association, 6728 Old McLean Village Drive, McLean, VA 22101, Telephone: (703) 556-9222, Fax: (703) 556-8729, or contact Connie MacKay at: [email protected] .

        Yearly Subscription Rates

        United States and possessions: Individual $243; Student/Resident: $121. All other countries (prices include airspeed delivery): Individual $290;Student/Resident $146. To receive student/ resident rate, orders must be accompanied by name of affiliated institution, date of term and the signature of program/ residency coordinator on institution letterhead. Orders will be billed at the individual rate until proof of status is received. Current prices are in effect for back volumes and back issues. Members and individual subscribers can access the Journal online at Institutional access is provided at

        Customer Service

        Orders, claims, online, change of address: Elsevier Health Sciences Division, Subscription Customer Service, 3251 Riverport Lane, Maryland Heights, MO 63043. Telephone: (800) 654-2452 (US and Canada); (314) 447-8871 (outside US and Canada). Fax: (314) 447- 8029. E-mail: [email protected] (for print support); [email protected] (for online support). Address changes must be submitted four weeks in advance.

        Bulk Reprints

        Reprints of Academic Pediatrics' articles are available. To order, please contact Derrick Imasa at (212) 633-3874, Elsevier Inc., 360 Park Avenue South, New York, NY 10010-1710, Fax: (212) 462-1935; email: [email protected] .


        The appearance of advertisements in Academic Pediatrics is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised, or of their effectiveness, quality, or safety. The publisher and APA disclaim any responsibility of any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas or products referred to in the articles or advertisements. Rate information is available via the online ratecard at


        The statements and opinions in the articles of Academic Pediatrics are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publisher or APA. No responsibility is assumed by the Publisher, the Academic Pediatric Association, or the Editor-in- Chief for any injury and/or damage to persons or property whether such liability, if any, arises as a matter of products liability, negligence or otherwise, or from any use or operation of any methods, products, instructions or ideas contained in the material herein. Because of rapid advances in the medical sciences, the Publisher recommends that independent verification of diagnosis and drug dosages should be made.


        Material printed in Academic Pediatrics is covered by copyright. All rights are reserved. Except under circumstances within ‘‘fair use’’ as defined by the copyright law, no part of this publication may be reproduced, displayed, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying or by an information storage and retrieval system, without the prior written permission of the Publisher.

        Author Instructions

        Complete author instructions can be found on the Journal’s website at All manuscripts must be submitted online via