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- Trends in high-turnover stays among children hospitalized in the United States, 1993–2003.Pediatrics. 2009; 123: 996-1002
- High turnover stays for pediatric asthma in the United States: analysis of the 2006 Kids' Inpatient Database.Med Care. 2010; 48: 827-833
- Emergency department observation units: a clinical and financial benefit for hospitals.Health Care Manage Rev. 2011; 36: 28-37
- Making greater use of dedicated hospital observation units for many short-stay patients could save $3.1 billion a year.Health Aff (Millwood). 2012; 31: 2314-2323
- A comparison of emergency department versus inhospital chest pain observation units.Am J Emerg Med. 2005; 23: 111-113
- National study of emergency department observation services.Acad Emerg Med. 2011; 18: 959-965
- State of the art: emergency department observation units.Crit Pathw Cardiol. 2012; 11: 128-138
- Short stay in an outpatient department. An alternative to hospitalization.Am J Dis Child. 1972; 123: 128-132
- Observation units: the role of an outpatient extended treatment site in pediatric care.Pediatr Emerg Care. 1998; 14: 444-447
- Observation medicine: the expanded role of the nurse practitioner in a pediatric emergency department extended care unit.Pediatr Emerg Care. 2005; 21: 199-202
- Our new rapid treatment unit: an innovative adaptation of the “less than 24-hour stay” holding unit.J Emerg Nurs. 2000; 26: 507-513
- Pediatric observation units in the United States: a systematic review.J Hosp Med. 2010; 5: 172-182
- Pediatric observation units.Pediatrics. 2012; 130: 172-179
- Designations of observation care in US freestanding children's hospitals: are they virtual or real?.J Hosp Med. 2012; 7: 287-293
- The pediatric hybrid observation unit: an analysis of 6477 consecutive patient encounters.Pediatrics. 2005; 115: e535-e542
- Maximizing use of the emergency department observation unit: a novel hybrid design.Ann Emerg Med. 2001; 37: 267-274
- Effect of a pediatric observation unit on the rate of hospitalization for asthma.Ann Emerg Med. 1997; 29: 218-222
- The Textbook of Observation Medicine: The Healthcare System's Tincture of Time.American College of Emergency Physicians, Irving, Tex2010 (Available at:)Accessed December 26, 2014)
- EDOU staffing by PAs: what are the effects on patient outcomes?.JAAPA. 2011; 24 (37): 31-34
- Implementation of a hospitalist-run observation unit and impact on length of stay (LOS): a brief report.J Hosp Med. 2010; 5: E2-E5
- Utilization and unexpected hospitalization rates of a pediatric emergency department 23-hour observation unit.Pediatr Emerg Care. 2008; 24: 589-594
- Use of an observation unit by a pediatric emergency department for common pediatric illnesses.Pediatr Emerg Care. 2001; 17: 321-323
- Use of a pediatric observation unit for treatment of children with dehydration caused by gastroenteritis.Pediatr Emerg Care. 2006; 22: 1-6
- Observation unit experience for pediatric poison exposures.J Med Toxicol. 2009; 5: 15-19
- Barriers to discharge from a 24-hour observation unit for children with bronchiolitis.Pediatr Emerg Care. 2010; 26: 892-896
- A reduction in hospitalization, length of stay, and hospital charges for croup with the institution of a pediatric observation unit.Am J Emerg Med. 2006; 24: 818-821
- Protocol-driven emergency department observation units offer savings, shorter stays, and reduced admissions.Health Aff (Millwood). 2013; 32: 2149-2156
- Staff satisfaction in short stay wards.Aust Health Rev. 1988; 11: 302-310
- Satisfaction with the emergency department environment decreases with length of stay.Emerg Med J. 2010; 27: 821-828
- An observation unit may help improve an institution's Press Ganey satisfaction score.Crit Pathw Cardiol. 2011; 10: 104-106
- Patient satisfaction with an emergency department asthma observation unit.Acad Emerg Med. 1999; 6: 178-183
Danbury Hospital (Danbury, Conn). Patient education sheet: outpatient observation status. Available at: http://www.danburyhospital.org/∼/media/Files/Patient%20Education/patiented-english/pdf_Other/Observation%20Unit%20Patient%20Fact%20Sheet.ashx. Accessed December 26, 2014.
Lenoir Memorial Hospital (Kinston, NC). Outpatient observation FAQ. Available at: http://lenoirmemorial.org/index.php/patient_financial_services/outpatient_observation_faq/. Accessed December 26, 2014.
Hancock Regional Hospital (Greenfield, Ind). Billing FAQ. Available at: http://www.hancockregionalhospital.org/patients/billing. Accessed December 26, 2014.
- Observation care—high-value care or a cost-shifting loophole?.N Engl J Med. 2013; 369: 302-305
- Availability of pediatric services and equipment in emergency departments: United States, 2006.Natl Health Stat Report. 2012; 1: 1-21
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.