Advertisement

Parental Use of Electronic Cigarettes

Published:August 23, 2015DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.acap.2015.06.013

      Abstract

      Objective

      To describe parental use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigs) to better understand the safety risks posed to children.

      Methods

      Between June 24 and November 6, 2014, parents completed a self-administered paper survey during an office visit to 15 pediatric practices in a Midwestern practice-based research network. Attitudes towards and use of e-cigs are reported for those aware of e-cigs before the survey.

      Results

      Ninety-five percent (628 of 658) of respondents were aware of e-cigs. Of these, 21.0% (130 of 622) had tried e-cigs at least once, and 12.3% (77) reported e-cig use by ≥1 person in their household (4.0% exclusive e-cig use, 8.3% dual use with regular cigarettes). An additional 17.3% (109) reported regular cigarette use. Most respondents from e-cig-using homes did not think e-cigs were addictive (36.9% minimally or not addictive, 25.0% did not know). While 73.7% believed that e-liquid was very dangerous for children if they ingested it, only 31.2% believed skin contact to be very dangerous. In 36.1% of e-cig-using homes, neither childproof caps nor locks were used to prevent children's access to e-liquid. Only 15.3% reported their child's pediatrician was aware of e-cig use in the home.

      Conclusions

      E-cig use occurred in 1 in 8 homes, often concurrently with regular cigarettes. Many parents who used e-cigs were unaware of the potential health and safety hazards, including nicotine poisoning for children, and many did not store e-liquid safely. Pediatricians could provide education about e-cig associated safety hazards but are unaware of e-cig use in their patient's homes.

      Keywords

      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'

      Subscribe:

      Subscribe to Academic Pediatrics
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect

      References

        • Cobb N.K.
        • Byron M.J.
        • Abrams D.B.
        • et al.
        Novel nicotine delivery systems and public health: the rise of the “e-cigarette”.
        Am J Public Health. 2010; 100: 2340-2342
      1. American Academy of Pediatrics Julius B. Richmond Center of Excellence. E-cigarettes. 2014. Available at: http://www2.aap.org/richmondcenter/pdfs/ECigarette_handout.pdf. Accessed December 16, 2014.

        • Nickels A.S.
        • Joshi A.Y.
        • Dinakar C.
        Electronic cigarettes: navigating the vapor.
        Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2014; 112: 481-483
        • Grana R.
        • Benowitz N.
        • Glantz S.A.
        E-cigarettes: a scientific review.
        Circulation. 2014; 129: 1972-1986
        • Collaco J.M.
        • Drummond M.B.
        • McGrath-Morrow S.A.
        Electronic cigarette use and exposure in the pediatric population.
        JAMA Pediatr. 2015; 169: 177-182
        • Goniewicz M.L.
        • Hajek P.
        • McRobbie H.
        Nicotine content of electronic cigarettes, its release in vapour and its consistency across batches: regulatory implications.
        Addiction. 2014; 109: 500-507
        • King B.A.
        • Alam S.
        • Promoff G.
        • et al.
        Awareness and ever-use of electronic cigarettes among US adults, 2010–2011.
        Nicotine Tob Res. 2013; 15: 1623-1627
        • McMillen R.C.
        • Gottlieb M.A.
        • Shaefer R.M.
        • et al.
        Trends in electronic cigarette use among US adults: use is increasing in both smokers and nonsmokers.
        Nicotine Tob Res. 2014; 16: 1140-1144
        • Regan A.K.
        • Promoff G.
        • Dube S.R.
        • et al.
        Electronic nicotine delivery systems: adult use and awareness of the “e-cigarette” in the USA.
        Tob Control. 2013; 22: 19-23
        • Wills T.A.
        • Knight R.
        • Williams R.J.
        • et al.
        Risk factors for exclusive e-cigarette use and dual e-cigarette use and tobacco use in adolescents.
        Pediatrics. 2015; 135: e43-e51
        • Dutra L.M.
        • Glantz S.A.
        Electronic cigarettes and conventional cigarette use among US adolescents: a cross-sectional study.
        JAMA Pediatr. 2014; 168: 610-617
        • Bunnell R.E.
        • Agaku I.T.
        • Arrazola R.A.
        • et al.
        Intentions to smoke cigarettes among never-smoking US middle and high school electronic cigarette users, National Youth Tobacco Survey, 2011–2013.
        Nicotine Tob Res. 2015; 17: 228-235
        • Camenga D.R.
        • Delmerico J.
        • Kong G.
        • et al.
        Trends in use of electronic nicotine delivery systems by adolescents.
        Addict Behav. 2014; 39: 338-340
        • Lee Y.O.
        • Hebert C.J.
        • Nonnemaker J.M.
        • et al.
        Multiple tobacco product use among adults in the United States: cigarettes, cigars, electronic cigarettes, hookah, smokeless tobacco, and snus.
        Prev Med. 2014; 62: 14-19
      2. McArdle M. E-cigarettes: a $1.5 billion industry braces for FDA regulation. 2014. Available at: http://www.bloomberg.com/bw/articles/2014-02-06/e-cigarettes-fda-regulation-looms-for-1-dot-5-billion-industry. Accessed January 6, 2015.

        • McRobbie H.
        • Bullen C.
        • Boyce-Hartmann J.
        • et al.
        Electronic cigarettes for smoking cessation and reduction.
        Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2014; : CD010216
        • Bullen C.
        • Howe C.
        • Laugesen M.
        • et al.
        Electronic cigarettes for smoking cessation: a randomised controlled trial.
        Lancet. 2013; 382: 1629-1637
        • Adkison S.E.
        • O'Connor R.J.
        • Bansal-Travers M.
        • et al.
        Electronic nicotine delivery systems: international tobacco control four-country survey.
        Am J Prev Med. 2013; 44: 207-215
        • Tanski S.
        Aggressive E-cigarette Marketing and Potential Consequences for Youth.
        American Academy of Pediatrics, Elk Grove Village, Ill2014 (Senate Committee on Commerce, Science and Transportation)
        • Barrington-Trimis J.L.
        • Samet J.M.
        • McConnell R.
        Flavorings in electronic cigarettes: an unrecognized respiratory health hazard?.
        JAMA. 2014; 312: 2493-2494
      3. ScienceLab.com. Material safety data sheet. L-Nicotine MSDS. 2013. Available at: http://www.sciencelab.com/msds.php?msdsId=9926222. Accessed February 26, 2015.

      4. Korioth T. Liquid nicotine used in e-cigarettes can kill children. AAP News. December 17, 2014. Available at: http://aapnews.aappublications.org/content/early/2014/12/17/aapnews.20141217-1. Accessed July 14, 2015.

        • Chatham-Stephens K.
        • Law R.
        • Taylor E.
        • et al.
        Notes from the field: calls to poison control centers for exposure to electronic cigarette: United States, September 2010–February 2014.
        MMWR Morb Mortality Wkly Rep. 2014; 63: 292-293
      5. Fort Plain baby dies after swallowing liquid nicotine. WNYT.com (Albany, NY), December 10, 2014. http://wnyt.com/article/stories/S3645210.shtml. Accessed December 17, 2014.

        • Zhu S.H.
        • Gamst A.
        • Lee M.
        • et al.
        The use and perception of electronic cigarettes and snus among the US population.
        PLoS One. 2013; 8: e79332
        • Walton K.M.
        • Abrams D.B.
        • Bailey W.C.
        • et al.
        NIH electronic cigarette workshop: developing a research agenda.
        Nicotine Tob Res. 2015; 17: 259-269
        • Vansickel A.R.
        • Eissenberg T.
        Electronic cigarettes: effective nicotine delivery after acute administration.
        Nicotine Tob Res. 2013; 15: 267-270
        • Dawkins L.
        • Corcoran O.
        Acute electronic cigarette use: nicotine delivery and subjective effects in regular users.
        Psychopharmacology. 2014; 231: 401-407
        • Gilman S.E.
        • Rende R.
        • Boergers J.
        • et al.
        Parental smoking and adolescent smoking initiation: an intergenerational perspective on tobacco control.
        Pediatrics. 2009; 123: e274-e281
        • Moyer V.A.
        • US Preventive Services Task Force
        Primary care interventions to prevent tobacco use in children and adolescents: US Preventive Services Task Force recommendation statement.
        Ann Intern Med. 2013; 132: 560-565
        • Gunn V.L.
        Youth tobacco exposure: the pediatrician's role in addressing a persistent problem.
        Acad Pediatr. 2013; 13: 489-490
        • Pepper J.K.
        • McRee A.L.
        • Gilkey M.B.
        Healthcare providers' beliefs and attitudes about electronic cigarettes and preventive counseling for adolescent patients.
        J Adolesc Health. 2014; 54: 678-683
        • Jamal A.
        • Agaku I.T.
        • O'Connor E.
        • et al.
        Current cigarette smoking among adults—United States, 2005–2013.
        MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2014; 63: 1108-1112
      6. Directive 2014/40/EU of the European Parliament and of the council. 2014. Available at: http://ec.europa.eu/health/tobacco/docs/dir_201440_en.pdf. Accessed June 23, 2015

        • Harris P.A.
        • Taylor R.
        • Thielke R.
        • et al.
        Research electronic data capture (REDCap)—a metadata-driven methodology and workflow process for providing translational research informatics support.
        J Biomed Inform. 2009; 42: 377-381

      Linked Article

      • Tobacco Exposure and Children: A Changing Landscape
        Academic PediatricsVol. 15Issue 6
        • Preview
          Three excellent articles in this month's issue of Academic Pediatrics highlight the constant challenge and ever-evolving landscape of tobacco control. We have made great strides since Dr Julius B. Richmond, in his tenure as Surgeon General, first recognized the impact that secondhand smoke (SHS) has on nonsmokers. In 1965, 42% of the US adult population smoked cigarettes, compared to 17.8% in 2013. However, as the prevalence decreases, we are seeing smaller declines in smoking rates each year, and many providers are finding that those who do smoke are harder to help to quit.
        • Full-Text
        • PDF