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Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Unmet Need for Pediatric Therapy Services: The Role of Family-Centered Care

      Abstract

      Objective

      To examine whether individual elements of family-centered care (FCC) mediate racial/ethnic disparities in parent-reported unmet therapy need.

      Methods

      We conducted a secondary data analysis using the 2009–2010 National Survey of Children With Special Health Care Needs. A total of 6478 black, Hispanic, and white children ages 0 to 5 years had complete data on parent-reported unmet need and FCC. Five measured indicators of FCC included whether the child's health care provider spent enough time with the child (time), listened carefully to the child's parents (listening), was sensitive to family culture and values (sensitivity), delivered information specific to the child's health (information), and helped parents feel like partners (partnership). We performed staged multivariate logistic regression to test the association between race/ethnicity and parent-reported unmet therapy need, and to explore whether this association was mediated by elements of FCC using the Baron-Kenny mediation framework.

      Results

      Eighteen percent of children with special health care needs 0 to 5 years old with reported therapy need experienced unmet need. Black and Hispanic children were more likely than white children to have parent-reported unmet therapy need (adjusted odds ratio 1.59, 95% confidence interval 1.08–2.36). This disparity was no longer significant after adjustment for the FCC elements of time, sensitivity, or partnership.

      Conclusions

      The provision of FCC is likely an important factor in meeting the therapy needs of children with developmental delay and in reducing racial/ethnic disparities in parent-reported unmet therapy need. Interventions aimed at fostering parent–provider relationships through improved cultural sensitivity and engagement of parents as partners are necessary to ensure equitable utilization of these services.

      Keywords

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