Advertisement

The Influence of Parental Self-Efficacy and Perceived Control on the Home Learning Environment of Young Children

      Abstract

      Objective

      To: 1) examine sociodemographic factors associated with high parental self-efficacy and perceived control, and 2) determine how self-efficacy and control relate to the home learning environment (HLE), including whether they mediate the relationship between sociodemographic characteristics and HLE, among low-income parents of young children.

      Methods

      Cross-sectional survey of English- and Spanish-speaking parents, 18 years of age and older, with children 15 to 36 months old, to assess parental self-efficacy, perceived control, HLE, and sociodemographic characteristics. Bivariate analysis identified sociodemographic predictors of high self-efficacy and control. Separate multivariate linear regression models were used to examine associations between self-efficacy, control, and the HLE. Formal path analysis was used to assess whether self-efficacy and control mediate the relationship between sociodemographic characteristics and HLE.

      Results

      Of 144 participants, 25% were white, 65% were immigrants, and 35% completed the survey in Spanish. US-born subjects, those who completed English surveys, or who had higher educational levels had significantly higher mean self-efficacy and perceived control scores (P < .05). Higher self-efficacy and perceived control were associated with a positive change in HLE score in separate multivariate models (self-efficacy β = .7 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.5–0.9]; control β = .5 [95% CI, 0.2–0.8]). Self-efficacy acted as a mediator such that low self-efficacy explained part of the association between parental depressive symptoms, immigrant status, and less optimal HLE (P = .04 and < .001, respectively).

      Conclusions

      High parental self-efficacy and perceived control positively influence HLEs of young children. Self-efficacy alone mediates the relationship between parental depressive symptoms, immigrant status, and less optimal early home learning.

      Keywords

      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'

      Subscribe:

      Subscribe to Academic Pediatrics
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect

      References

        • Farah M.J.
        • Shera D.M.
        • Savage J.H.
        • et al.
        Childhood poverty: specific associations with neurocognitive development.
        Brain Res. 2006; 1110: 166-174
        • Evans G.W.
        • Kim P.
        Childhood poverty, chronic stress, self-regulation, and coping.
        Child Dev Perspect. 2013; 1: 43-48
        • Walker S.P.
        • Wachs T.D.
        • Grantham-McGregor S.
        • et al.
        Inequality in early childhood: risk and protective factors for early child development.
        Lancet. 2011; 378: 1325-1338
        • Landry S.H.
        • Smith K.E.
        • Swank P.R.
        • et al.
        The effects of a responsive parenting intervention on parent-child interactions during shared book reading.
        Dev Psychol. 2012; 48: 969-986
        • Engle P.L.
        • Black M.M.
        The effect of poverty on child development and educational outcomes.
        Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2008; 1136: 243-256
        • Han W.J.
        • Lee R.
        • Waldfogel J.
        School readiness among children of immigrants in the US: evidence from a large national birth cohort study.
        Child Youth Serv Rev. 2012; 34: 771-782
        • Festa N.
        • Loftus P.D.
        • Cullen M.R.
        • et al.
        Disparities in early exposure to book sharing within immigrant families.
        Pediatrics. 2014; 134: e162-e168
        • Coleman P.K.
        • Karraker K.H.
        Maternal self-efficacy beliefs, competence, in parenting, and toddlers' behavior and developmental status.
        Infant Mental Health J. 2003; 24: 236-248
        • Bandura A.
        Self-efficacy: toward a unifying theory of behavioral change.
        Psychol Rev. 1977; 84: 191-215
        • Sanders M.R.
        • Woolley M.L.
        The relationship between maternal self-efficacy and parenting practices: implications for parent training.
        Child Care Health Dev. 2005; 31: 65-73
        • Pelletier J.
        • Brent J.M.
        Parent participation in children's school readiness: the effects of parental self-efficacy, cultural diversity and teacher strategies.
        Int J Early Childhood. 2002; 34: 45-60
        • Jones T.L.
        • Prinz R.J.
        Potential roles of parental self-efficacy in parent and child adjustment: a review.
        Clin Psychol Rev. 2005; 25: 341-363
        • Theodille V.
        The Effects of Parental Self-Efficacy on the Parental Involvement and on Pre-School Aged Children's Readiness for the Transition to Kindergarten.
        Human Development and Family Studies, Auburn University, Auburn, Alabama2013
        • Teti D.M.
        • Gelfand D.M.
        Behavioral competence among mothers of infants in the first year: the mediational role of maternal self-efficacy.
        Child Dev. 1991; 62: 918-929
        • Machida S.
        • Taylor A.R.
        • Kim J.
        The role of maternal beliefs in predicting home learning activities in Head Start families.
        Fam Relat. 2002; 51: 176-184
        • Guzell J.R.
        • Vernon-Feagans L.
        Parental perceived control over caregiving and its relationship to parent-infant interaction.
        Child Dev. 2004; 75: 134-146
        • Coleman P.K.
        • Karraker K.H.
        Self-efficacy and parenting quality: findings and future applications.
        Dev Rev. 1997; 18: 47-85
        • Wells-Parker E.
        • Miller D.I.
        • Topping J.S.
        Development of control-of-outcome scales and self-efficacy scales for women in four life roles.
        J Pers Assess. 1990; 54: 564-575
        • Bradley R.H.
        • Caldwell B.M.
        The relation of infants' home environments to achievement test performance in first grade: a follow-up study.
        Child Dev. 1984; 55: 803-809
        • Johnston C.
        • Mash E.J.
        A measure of parenting satisfaction and efficacy.
        J Clin Child Psychol. 1989; 18: 167-175
        • Heath R.W.
        • Levin P.F.
        • Tibbetts K.A.
        “Development of Home Learning Environment Profile.” Coming Home to Pre-School: The Sociocultural Context of Early Education.
        Ablex, Norwood, NJ1993
        • Kroenke K.
        • Spitzer R.L.
        • Williams J.B.
        The PHQ-9: validity of a brief depression severity measure.
        J Gen Intern Med. 2001; 16: 606-613
        • Sevigny P.R.
        • Loutzenhiser L.
        Predictors of parenting self-efficacy in mothers and fathers of toddlers.
        Child Care Health Dev. 2010; 36: 179-189
        • Grossman D.S.
        • Mendelsohn A.L.
        • Tunik M.G.
        • et al.
        Screening for developmental delay in high-risk users of an urban pediatric emergency department.
        Pediatr Emerg Care. 2010; 26: 793-797
        • Belsley D.A.
        • Kuh E.
        • Welsch R.E.
        “Detecting and Assessing Collinearity.” Regression Diagnostics: Identifying Influential Data and Sources of Collinearity.
        John Wiley & Sons, New York1980
        • Weng H.Y.
        • Hsueh Y.H.
        • Messam L.L.
        • et al.
        Methods of covariate selection: directed acyclic graphs and the change-in-estimate procedure.
        Am J Epidemiol. 2009; 169: 1182-1190
        • Bentler P.M.
        Comparative fit indexes in structural models.
        Psychol Bull. 1990; 107: 238-246
        • Tucker L.R.
        • Lewis C.
        A reliability coefficient for maximum likelihood factor analysis.
        Psychometrika. 1973; 38: 1-10
        • Steiger J.H.
        Structural model evaluation and modification: an interval estimation approach.
        Multivariate Behav Res. 1990; 25: 173-180
        • Izzo C.
        • Weiss C.
        • Shanahan T.
        • et al.
        Parental self-efficacy and social support as predictors of parenting practices and children's socioemotional adjustment in Mexican immigrant families.
        J Prev Intervent Commun. 2008; 20: 197-213
        • Dumka L.E.
        • Gonzales N.A.
        • Wheeler L.A.
        • et al.
        Parenting self-efficacy and parenting practices over time in Mexican American families.
        J Fam Psychol. 2010; 24: 522-531
        • Bandura A.
        Human agency in social cognitive theory.
        Am Psychol. 1989; 44: 1175-1184
        • Bornstein M.H.
        • Cote L.R.
        “Who is sitting across from me?” Immigrant mothers' knowledge of parenting and children's development.
        Pediatrics. 2004; 114: e557-e564
        • Ridner S.L.
        • Ostapchuk M.
        • Cloud R.N.
        • et al.
        Using motivational interviewing for smoking cessation in primary care.
        South Med J. 2014; 107: 314-319
        • Cates C.B.
        • Weisleder A.
        • Mendelsohn A.L.
        Mitigating the effects of family poverty on early child development through parenting interventions in primary care.
        Acad Pediatr. 2016; 16: S112-S120