Associations of Maternal Consumption of Sugary Beverages in Pregnancy With Infant Weight Status



      To examine associations of maternal consumption of 100% juice and sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) in the third trimester of pregnancy with infant weight status at 6 and 12 months.


      We studied 379 mother-infant dyads from Rise & SHINE, a prospective cohort study. Exposures were maternal consumption of 100% juice and SSBs in the third trimester. Outcome measures were infant weight-for-length (WFL) z-scores at 6 and 12 months and rapid infant weight gain (RIWG; change in weight-for-age z-score ≥0.67) from birth to 6 and 12 months.


      Mean (SD) maternal age was 32.8 (5.1) years; 71.7% reported household income ≥$50,000. In the third trimester, nearly daily or daily consumption of 100% juice and SSBs was 25.9% and 16.6%, respectively. Mean (SD) WFL z-scores at 6 and 12 months were 0.35 (0.96) and 0.50 (0.98). RIWG was present in 30.2% and 36.6% of infants from birth to 6 months and birth to 12 months, respectively. In multivariable models, 100% juice consumption was associated with higher WFL z-score at 6 months (β = 0.26; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.03, 0.49) and higher odds of RIWG from birth to 6 months (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 2.09; 95%CI: 1.23, 3.56) and birth to 12 months (aOR = 1.85; 95%CI: 1.04, 3.28). 100% juice consumption was not associated with WFL z-score at 12 months and SSB consumption was not associated with any of the outcomes.


      Consumption of 100% juice, but not SSBs, in the third trimester of pregnancy is associated with infant weight status at 6 months and RIWG.


      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'


      Subscribe to Academic Pediatrics
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect


        • Woo Baidal JA
        • Locks LM
        • Cheng ER
        • et al.
        Risk factors for childhood obesity in the first 1,000 days: a systematic review.
        Am J Prev Med. 2016; 50: 761-779
        • Taveras EM
        • Rifas-Shiman SL
        • Sherry B
        • et al.
        Crossing growth percentiles in infancy and risk of obesity in childhood.
        Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2011; 165: 993-998
        • Zheng M
        • Lamb KE
        • Grimes C
        • et al.
        Rapid weight gain during infancy and subsequent adiposity: a systematic review and meta-analysis of evidence.
        Obes Rev. 2018; 19: 321-332
        • Martin CL
        • Siega-Riz AM
        • Sotres-Alvarez D
        • et al.
        Maternal dietary patterns during pregnancy are associated with child growth in the first 3 years of life.
        J Nutr. 2016; 146: 2281-2288
        • Horan MK
        • McGowan CA
        • Gibney ER
        • et al.
        Maternal nutrition and glycaemic index during pregnancy impacts on offspring adiposity at 6 months of age—analysis from the ROLO randomised controlled trial.
        Nutrients. 2016; 8: 7
        • Kizirian N V
        • Kong Y
        • Muirhead R
        • et al.
        Effects of a low-glycemic index diet during pregnancy on offspring growth, body composition, and vascular health: a pilot randomized controlled trial.
        Am J Clin Nutr. 2016; 103: 1073-1082
        • Murrin C
        • Shrivastava A
        • Kelleher CC.
        Maternal macronutrient intake during pregnancy and 5 years postpartum and associations with child weight status aged five.
        Eur J Clin Nutr. 2013; 67: 670-679
        • Gonzalez-Nahm S
        • Hoyo C
        • Østbye T
        • et al.
        Associations of maternal diet with infant adiposity at birth, 6 months and 12 months.
        BMJ Open. 2019; 9e030186
        • Phelan S
        • Hart C
        • Phipps M
        • et al.
        Maternal behaviors during pregnancy impact offspring obesity risk.
        Exp Diabetes Res. 2011; 2011985139
        • Godfrey KM
        • Gluckman PD
        • Hanson MA.
        Developmental origins of metabolic disease: life course and intergenerational perspectives.
        Trends Endocrinol Metab. 2010; 21: 199-205
        • Malik VS
        • Pan A
        • Willett WC
        • et al.
        Sugar-sweetened beverages and weight gain in children and adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
        Am J Clin Nutr. 2013; 98: 1084-1102
        • Gillman MW
        • Rifas-Shiman SL
        • Fernandez-Barres S
        • et al.
        Beverage intake during pregnancy and childhood adiposity.
        Pediatrics. 2017; 140e20170031
        • Azad MB
        • Sharma AK
        • De Souza RJ
        • et al.
        Association between artificially sweetened beverage consumption during pregnancy and infant body mass index.
        JAMA Pediatr. 2016; 170: 662-670
        • Zhu Y
        • Olsen SF
        • Mendola P
        • et al.
        Maternal consumption of artificially sweetened beverages during pregnancy, and offspring growth through 7 years of age: A prospective cohort study.
        Int J Epidemiol. 2017; 46: 1499-1508
        • Walker RW
        • Dumke KA
        • Goran MI.
        Fructose content in popular beverages made with and without high-fructose corn syrup.
        Nutrition. 2014; 30: 928-935
      1. National Cancer Institute. Dietary screener questionnaire in the NHANES 2009-10. Accessed October 9, 2020.

        • WHO Multicentre Growth Reference Study Group
        WHO Child Growth Standards: Length/Height-for-Age, Weight-for-Age, Weight-for-Length, Weight-for-Height and Body Mass Index-for-Age: Methods and Development.
        2006 (Geneva)
      2. United States Department of Agriculture. Publication of the 2020-2021 Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC) Income Eligibility Guidelines. Published 2020. Accessed October 9, 2020.

        • Watt TT
        • Appel L
        • Roberts K
        • et al.
        Sugar, stress, and the supplemental nutrition assistance program: early childhood obesity risks among a clinic-based sample of low-income Hispanics.
        J Community Health. 2013; 38: 513-520
        • Symonds ME
        • Sebert SP
        • Hyatt MA
        • et al.
        Nutritional programming of the metabolic syndrome.
        Nat Rev Endocrinol. 2009; 5: 604-610
        • Pereira TJ
        • Moyce BL
        • Kereliuk SM
        • et al.
        Influence of maternal overnutrition and gestational diabetes on the programming of metabolic health outcomes in the offspring: experimental evidence.
        Biochem Cell Biol. 2015; 93: 438-451
      3. U.S. Department of Agriculture. Eat healthy: fruits. ChooseMyPlate. Accessed October 13, 2020.