Advertisement

Association Between Adverse Childhood Experiences and Diet, Exercise, and Sleep in Pre-adolescents

  • William W. Lewis-de los Angeles
    Correspondence
    Address correspondence to William W. Lewis-de los Angeles, MD, Bradley Hospital, 1011 Veterans Memorial Parkway, Riverside, RI 02915.
    Affiliations
    Department of Pediatrics, Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island

    Department of Pediatrics, Emma Pendleton Bradley Hospital, Riverside, Rhode Island
    Search for articles by this author

      Abstract

      Objective

      To understand the relationship between adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and diet, sleep, and exercise in pre-adolescents.

      Methods

      Baseline and 1-year follow-up data from the adolescent brain and cognitive development (ABCD) study were analyzed (age 10–11, n = 11,875). ACEs were measured by parent report at baseline. Three levels of ACEs were created: none, exposure to one ACE, and exposure to two or more ACEs. Health-promoting behaviors were assessed at 1 year. Diet quality was measured from parent report; sleep problems were measured by parent report, with higher scores indicating worse sleep; and amount of exercise was measured by youth report. Linear regression analyses were used to assess the relationship between ACEs and each health-promoting behavior, adjusting for family income and sex.

      Results

      Compared to children with no adversity, ACEs were associated with worse diet – one ACE (β = −0.30 [95% CI, −0.49 to −0.12], P = .002) and 2 or more ACEs (β = −0.56 [−0.78 to −0.34, P < .001). Similarly, ACEs were associated with poor sleep – one ACE (β = 1.51 [1.00–2.03], P < .001) and 2 or more ACEs (β = 2.96 [2.38–3.53], P < .001). Finally, amount of exercise was not different in children with ACEs – 2 or more ACEs (β = −0.24, 95% CI, −0.51 to 0.04, P = .08).

      Conclusions

      ACEs in pre-adolescents show a dose-response relationship with unhealthy diet and sleep disruption. These findings suggest potential behaviors to target to mitigate the negative impact of childhood adversity on adult health.

      Keywords

      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'

      Subscribe:

      Subscribe to Academic Pediatrics
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect

      Reference

        • Wiss DA
        • Brewerton TD.
        Physiology & behavior adverse childhood experiences and adult obesity : a systematic review of plausible mechanisms and meta-analysis of cross-sectional studies.
        Physiol Behav. 2020; 223112964https://doi.org/10.1016/j.physbeh.2020.112964
        • Felitti VJ
        • Anda RF
        • Nordenberg D
        • et al.
        Relationship of childhood abuse and household dysfunction to many of the leading causes of death in adults: the adverse childhood experiences (ACE) study.
        Am J Prev Med. 1998; (Published online)https://doi.org/10.1016/S0749-3797(98)00017-8
        • Hughes K
        • Bellis MA
        • Hardcastle KA
        • et al.
        The effect of multiple adverse childhood experiences on health: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
        Lancet Public Heal. 2017; 2: e356-e366https://doi.org/10.1016/S2468-2667(17)30118-4
        • Danese A
        • McEwen BS.
        Adverse childhood experiences, allostasis, allostatic load, and age-related disease.
        Physiol Behav. 2012; 106: 29-39https://doi.org/10.1016/j.physbeh.2011.08.019
        • Ness AR
        • Maynard M
        • Frankel S
        • et al.
        Diet in childhood and adult cardiovascular and all cause mortality: the Boyd Orr cohort.
        Heart. 2005; 91: 894-898https://doi.org/10.1136/hrt.2004.043489
        • Maynard M
        • Gunnell D
        • Emmett P
        • et al.
        Fruit, vegetables, and antioxidants in childhood and risk of adult cancer: the Boyd Orr cohort.
        J Epidemiol Community Health. 2003; 57: 218-225https://doi.org/10.1136/jech.57.3.218
        • Hallal PC
        • Victora CG
        • Azevedo MR
        • Wells JCK.
        Adolescent physical activity and health: a systematic review.
        Sport Med. 2006; 36: 1019-1030https://doi.org/10.2165/00007256-200636120-00003
        • Van De Mheen H
        • Stronks K
        • Looman CWN
        • Mackenbach JP.
        Does childhood socioeconomic status influence adult health through behavioural factors?.
        Int J Epidemiol. 1998; 27: 431-437https://doi.org/10.1093/ije/27.3.431
        • Landhuis CE
        • Poulton R
        • Welch D
        • Hancox RJ.
        Childhood sleep time and long-term risk for obesity: a 32-year prospective birth cohort study.
        Pediatrics. 2008; 122: 955-960https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2007-3521
        • Harada M
        • Guerrero A
        • Iyer S
        • et al.
        The relationship between adverse childhood experiences and weight-related health behaviors in a national sample of children.
        Acad Pediatr. 2021; 21: 1375-1382https://doi.org/10.1016/j.acap.2021.05.024
        • Lumeng JC
        • Miller A
        • Peterson KE
        • et al.
        Diurnal cortisol pattern, eating behaviors and overweight in low-income preschool-aged children.
        Appetite. 2014; 73: 65-72https://doi.org/10.1016/j.appet.2013.10.016
      1. Stults-Kolehmainen MA, Sinha R. The effects of stress on physical activity and exercise. Vol 44.; 2014. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40279-013-0090-5

        • Ordway MR
        • Condon EM
        • Ibrahim BB
        • et al.
        A systematic review of the association between sleep health and stress biomarkers in children.
        Sleep Med Rev. 2021; 59101494https://doi.org/10.1016/j.smrv.2021.101494
        • Nelson M.
        Childhood nutrition and poverty.
        Proc Nutr Soc. 2000; 59: 307-315https://doi.org/10.1017/S0029665100000343
        • Yen IH
        • Kaplan GA.
        Poverty area residence and changes in depression and perceived health status: evidence from the Alameda County Study.
        Int J Epidemiol. 1999; 28: 90-94https://doi.org/10.1093/ije/28.1.90
        • Sivertsen B
        • Bøe T
        • Skogen JC
        • et al.
        Moving into poverty during childhood is associated with later sleep problems.
        Sleep Med. 2017; 37: 54-59https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sleep.2017.06.005
        • James C
        • Jimenez ME
        • Wade R
        • Nepomnyaschy L.
        Adverse childhood experiences and teen behavior outcomes: the role of disability.
        Acad Pediatr. 2021; 21: 1395-1403https://doi.org/10.1016/j.acap.2021.05.006
        • Elmore AL
        • Crouch E.
        The Association of adverse childhood experiences with anxiety and depression for children and youth, 8 to 17 years of age.
        Acad Pediatr. 2020; 20: 600-608https://doi.org/10.1016/j.acap.2020.02.012
        • Bellis MA
        • Hughes K
        • Leckenby N
        • et al.
        National household survey of adverse childhood experiences and their relationship with resilience to health-harming behaviors in England.
        BMC Med. 2014; 12https://doi.org/10.1186/1741-7015-12-72
        • Abajobir AA
        • Kisely S
        • Williams G
        • et al.
        Childhood maltreatment and high dietary fat intake behaviors in adulthood: a birth cohort study.
        Child Abus Negl. 2017; 72: 147-153https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chiabu.2017.08.002
        • Jackson DB
        • Vaughn MG.
        Obesogenic food consumption among young children: the role of maltreatment.
        Public Health Nutr. 2019; 22: 1840-1849https://doi.org/10.1017/S1368980019000065
        • Schuler BR
        • Vazquez C
        • Kobulsky JM
        • et al.
        The early effects of cumulative and individual adverse childhood experiences on child diet: examining the role of socioeconomic status.
        Prev Med (Baltim). 2021; 145106447https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ypmed.2021.106447
        • Jackson DB
        • Vaughn MG.
        Parental incarceration and child sleep and eating behaviors.
        J Pediatr. 2017; 185: 211-217https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpeds.2017.03.026
        • Zarychta K
        • Banik A
        • Kulis E
        • et al.
        Parental depression predicts child body mass via parental support provision, child support receipt, and child physical activity: findings from parent/caregiver–child dyads.
        Front Psychol. 2020; 11: 1-10https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2020.00161
        • Kajeepeta S
        • Gelaye B
        • Jackson CL
        • Williams MA.
        Adverse childhood experiences are associated with adult sleep disorders: a systematic review.
        Sleep Med. 2015; 16: 320-330https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sleep.2014.12.013
        • Oh DL
        • Jerman P
        • Silvério Marques S
        • et al.
        Systematic review of pediatric health outcomes associated with childhood adversity.
        BMC Pediatr. 2018; 18https://doi.org/10.1186/s12887-018-1037-7
        • Armitage R
        • Flynn H
        • Hoffmann R
        • et al.
        Early developmental changes in sleep in infants: the impact of maternal depression.
        Sleep. 2009; 32: 693-696https://doi.org/10.1093/sleep/32.5.693
        • Hairston IS
        • Waxler E
        • Seng JS
        • et al.
        The role of infant sleep in intergenerational transmission of trauma.
        Sleep. 2011; 34: 1373-1383https://doi.org/10.5665/sleep.1282
        • Wolke D
        • Lereya ST.
        Bullying and parasomnias: a longitudinal cohort study.
        Pediatrics. 2014; 134: e1040-e1048https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2014-1295
        • Hambrick EP
        • Rubens SL
        • Brawner TW
        • Taussig HN.
        Do sleep problems mediate the link between adverse childhood experiences and delinquency in preadolescent children in foster care?.
        J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2018; 59: 140-149https://doi.org/10.1111/jcpp.12802
        • Rojo-Wissar DM
        • Sosnowski DW
        • Ingram MM
        • et al.
        Associations of adverse childhood experiences with adolescent total sleep time, social jetlag, and insomnia symptoms.
        Sleep Med. 2021; 88: 104-115https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sleep.2021.10.019
        • Garavan H
        • Bartsch H
        • Conway K
        • et al.
        Recruiting the ABCD sample: design considerations and procedures.
        Dev Cogn Neurosci. 2018; 32: 16-22https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dcn.2018.04.004
        • Heeringa SG
        • Berglund PA.
        A guide for population-based analysis of the adolescent brain cognitive development (ABCD) study baseline data.
        bioRxiv. 2020; (2020.02.10.942011)https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.02.10.942011
        • Barch DM
        • Albaugh MD
        • Avenevoli S
        • et al.
        Demographic, physical and mental health assessments in the adolescent brain and cognitive development study: rationale and description.
        Dev Cogn Neurosci. 2018; 32: 55-66https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dcn.2017.10.010
        • Bruni O
        • Ottaviano S
        • Guidetti V
        • et al.
        The Sleep Disturbance Scale for Children (SDSC) construction and validation of an instrument to evaluate sleep disturbances in childhood and adolescence.
        J Sleep Res. 1996; 5: 251-261https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2869.1996.00251.x
        • Hoffman EA
        • Clark DB
        • Orendain N
        • et al.
        Stress exposures, neurodevelopment and health measures in the ABCD study.
        Neurobiol Stress. 2019; 10https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ynstr.2019.100157
        • Shonkoff JP
        • Garner AS
        • Siegel BS
        • et al.
        The lifelong effects of early childhood adversity and toxic stress.
        Pediatrics. 2012; 129https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2011-2663
        • Short MA
        • Gradisar M
        • Lack LC
        • Wright HR.
        The impact of sleep on adolescent depressed mood, alertness and academic performance.
        J Adolesc. 2013; 36: 1025-1033https://doi.org/10.1016/j.adolescence.2013.08.007
        • Alvaro PK
        • Roberts RM
        • Harris JK.
        A systematic review assessing bidirectionality between sleep disturbances, anxiety, and depression.
        Sleep. 2013; 36: 1059-1068https://doi.org/10.5665/sleep.2810