All youth must transition from pediatric to adult-centered medical care. This process is especially difficult for youth with special health care needs. Many youth do not receive the age-appropriate medical care they need and are at risk during this vulnerable time. Previous research has identified barriers that may prevent effective transition, and protocols have been developed to improve the process. Health outcomes related to successful transition have yet to be fully defined. Health care transition can also be influenced by education of providers, but there are gaps in medical education at the undergraduate, graduate, and postgraduate levels.