- With 25% of preschool-age children in the United States being overweight or obese, effective interventions for these children would have significant public health implications. Randomized trials targeting this age group have been performed since the last systematic review.
- Autism spectrum disorders (ASD), once thought rare, are now commonly encountered in clinical practice. Academic pediatricians may be expected to teach medical students and pediatric residents about ASD, but most likely received limited exposure to ASD during their training. In recent years, research that informs the clinical guidance provided to pediatricians regarding surveillance, screening, and ongoing management of children with ASD has accelerated. By 24 months of age, children with ASD exhibit delays across multiple domains of development, yet the diagnosis is frequently made much later.
- Frequent consumption of simple carbohydrates, primarily in the form of dietary sugars, is significantly associated with increased dental caries risk. Malnutrition (undernutrition or overnutrition) in children is often a consequence of inappropriate infant and childhood feeding practices and dietary behaviors associated with limited access to fresh, nutrient dense foods, substituting instead high-energy, low-cost, nutrient-poor sugary and fatty foods. Lack of availability of quality food stores in rural and poor neighborhoods, food insecurity, and changing dietary beliefs resulting from acculturation, including changes in traditional ethnic eating behaviors, can further deter healthful eating and increase risk for early childhood caries and obesity.
- To explore whether health promotion efforts targeted at preschool-age children can improve health across the life span and improve future economic returns to society.